What is Nebuchadnezzar II famous for?

Illustration image of Nebuchadnezzar II

Nebuchadnezzar II was the second king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire.

And the meaning of his name is as follows.

O God Naboo (God of Wisdom), protect my first son.

Nebuchadnezzar II carried out the restoration work of Babylon, which was in ruins, and the Babylonian Captivity of Jerusalem.

He is also famous enough to appear in the Old Testament.

The reign of this king can be said to be the heyday of Neo-Babylonian Empire.

If you would like to know more about the history of Neo-Babylonian Empire,

What is New Babylonia? Three histories, from its establishment to its destruction, explained!

Please read this article.

So, what kind of person was Nebuchadnezzar II?

Background to the Babylonian Captivity

After the death of his father Nabopolassar, his son Nebuchadnezzar II became king of Neo-Babylonia.

Shortly thereafter, Egypt resumed its intervention in the Syrian provinces and Palestine, which had been under Babylonian rule.

Egypt and Nebuchadnezzar II's father, Nabopolassar, had been on bad terms since the time of Nebuchadnezzar II.

Nebuchadnezzar II Image

Let us invade Egypt!

Nebuchadnezzar II urged it but the attempt failed.

Then, in the Syrian kingdoms he conquered,

People image

Can you stand between enemy countries like this?!

And so rebellions broke out in various parts of the country.

The First Babylonian Captivity

Nebuchadnezzar II quickly dealt with these rebellions and captured Jerusalem.

He then took the Kingdom of Southern Judah as his vassal state.

Nebuchadnezzar II Image

Take the king and many of the inhabitants to Babylon.

He ordered it to the people.

This was the "First Babylonian Captivity".

Two years later, Nebuchadnezzar II ruled almost the entire Orient (Middle East) except for Egypt.

Just like the former Assyrian Empire.

To learn more about the history of Assyria, the great empire that conquered the entire Orient,

Please read this article.

The Second Babylonian Captivity

After that, Egypt did not learn its lesson and invaded the Palestinian territories again.

The Kingdom of Southern Judah, which had been made a vassal state, took advantage of this.

People image

We can do nothing for Babylonia!

And they revolted again.

Nebuchadnezzar II Image

Oh dear, here we must go again!

In response, Nebuchadnezzar II again besieged Jerusalem, causing it to fall the following year and thoroughly destroying the Temple and Jerusalem.

As a result, the Kingdom of Judah was destroyed.

Many captives were again captured and taken to the capital city of Babylon.

This was the "Second Babylonian Captivity".

If you would like to know more about the Babylonian Captivity, which was a catalyst for the birth of Judaism,

Please also read this article.

Relationship with the Old Testament

The Babylonian Captivity is well documented in the Old Testament.

The two books of history, "Books of Kings" and "Books of Chronicles", are written in the form of history books.

The content of these two history books is almost the same, but there is a slight difference.

If you would like to know more about the differences, please refer to the following pages.

For those who want to know more about the differences between the two history books, please refer to the following page.

An easy-to-understand explanation of the differences between the contents of "Chronicles" and "Books of Kings"!

Before the Babylonian Captivity took place,

Prophet image

The prophet Jeremiah predicted it.

It is said so.

To learn more about the "Book of Jeremiah", which describes the prophecy of the prophet Jeremiah and the end of his tumultuous life,

What is the synopsis of the Book of Jeremiah? A Compendium of the Prophet's Life!

Please read this article.

The "Book of Daniel" also tells the story of the Jews taken to Babylon in detail, with Daniel as the main character.

To learn more about the contents of the "Book of Daniel",

What is the Book of Daniel in the Old Testament? A summary and explanation!

Please read the article as well.

After the Babylonian Captivity

After the fall of Jerusalem, Nebuchadnezzar spent 13 years surrounding the city of Tullus and attacking it.

But he was not able to achieve complete victory.

Nebuchadnezzar II Image

Thulos must submit to our Babylonian empire.

And he withdrew his troops on this condition.

After the peace with Tyrus,

Nebuchadnezzar II Image

We are going to Egypt again!

Nebuchadnezzar II went to Egypt, but this too has not been settled.

After the conquest of Phoenicia and the expedition to Egypt,

Nebuchadnezzar II Image

Let's rebuild and decorate Babylon!

Nebuchadnezzar II ordered like this and developed other canals, waterways, temples, and reservoirs.

Nebuchadnezzar's building projects

Nebuchadnezzar II is famous for his large-scale construction projects.

The city of Babylon had been in the midst of several rebellions, so catastrophically had the city been destroyed.

Then, he inherited his father Nabopolassar's undertakings.

Nebuchadnezzar II Image

I will revive Babylon into one of the greatest cities in the world!

It was his great goal, and he undertook the massive construction project.

Perhaps because of this goal, he spent lavishly on supplies for the magnificent construction.

Summary of Construction Projects

The following is a summary of the achievements of the construction projects.

  • Building a bridge over the Euphrates River
  • Construction of an underground passageway
  • Construction of the triple wall
  • Construction of the Ishtar Gate

Nebuchadnezzar II had his name engraved on the bricks and other materials used in the construction, and this is a clue to his name even today.

Other famous sites include the ruins of the Ziggurat of Esagil in the Temple of Marduk, which is said to have been the model for the Tower of Babel.

Anonymous image

What is the Tower of Babel?

If you are wondering so,

A brief synopsis of "Noah's Ark" and "Tower of Babel"

Please read this article for more information.

How was the construction projects done?

Nebuchadnezzar's construction projects extended to other cities as well as the capital.

This is such the massive construction project.

How did he procure the labor?

The correct answer is this.

He used slaves brought from West Asia.

There is no proof yet, but it is extremely likely, since the inscription in the Great Temple of the God Marduk mentions it.

Thus, most of the royal inscriptions about Neo-Babylonian Empire are about construction projects.

On the other hand, very little is written about Nebuchadnezzar's political details.

Legend of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon

There is a legend about Nebuchadnezzar II that goes something like this.

Scholarly image

He may have built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon?

It is said to have been built to comfort the queen in her days of melancholy and nostalgia for her homeland.

I've summarized this legend of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon in detail in a separate article.

If you are interested in it, please read this article as well.

Mesopotamian civilization has a lot more history to tell.

If you want to know more about the history of Mesopotamian civilization,

What is the Mesopotamian Civilization? I explain in detail what kind of civilization it is!

Please also read this article.

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