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Historical chronology

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Since many ancient dates are ambiguous, we have prepared this document based on approximate dates. Also, the dates are written based on the year in which any event began.

Prehistory Ancient history

Prehistory

Era Country Event
6 million years ago Africa The Birth of Humans Walking Upright
4.5 million years ago Africa Emergence of Ramidus Ape Man
4 million years ago Africa Emergence of Australopithecus (ape man)
2.4 million years ago Africa Emergence of Homo habilis
2 million years ago Africa Beginning of the Paleolithic Era
1.8 million years ago Asia Emergence of Homo erectus (proto-human)
1.8 million years ago Indonesia Emergence of Javanese proto-humans
780,000 years ago China Emergence of Peking Man
600,000 years ago Germany Emergence of Homo heidelbergensis (Old Man)
400,000 years ago Germany Neanderthals spread
200,000 years ago Africa Emergence of Homo sapiens (newcomers)
40,000 years ago France Emergence of Cro-magnon man
Cave murals are created.
18,000 years ago America Crossing the Bering Strait and arriving in the Americas

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Ancient history

Era Country Event
BC3000~ Iraq Birth of Mesopotamian civilization
Sumerians built city-states
BC3000~ China The Birth of Chinese Civilization
BC3000~ Egypt Birth of Egyptian Civilization
BC3000~ Greece Birth of Aegean Civilization
BC2530 Egypt King Khufu and others build pyramids
BC2500~ India Birth of the Indus Civilization
BC2300 India Urban civilizations such as Mohenjo-daro flourish
BC2000~ Greece Birth of Minoan civilization
BC1900~ Iraq Birth of the Old Babylonian Empire
BC1792 Iraq Enactment of the Code of Hammurabi
BC1680~ Turkey Birth of the Hittite Kingdom
BC1600 China Birth of the Yin (Shang) Dynasty
BC1450~ Greece Birth of Mycenaean Civilization
BC1342~ Egypt Tutankhamun era
BC1300~ India Establishment of Brahmanism
BC1200 Iraq Assyrian Empire captures Babylon
BC1200 Israel Exodus by Moses
BC1200 Greece Trojan War
BC1200 Syria Alphabet Practical Use by the Phoenicians
BC1200~ America Birth of the Olmec Civilization
BC1200~ Greece Dark Ages of Ancient Greece
BC1046~ China Birth of the Zhou Dynasty
BC1021~ Israel Birth of the Kingdom of Israel
BC1000 Israel King David enthroned
BC1000 India Aryans move to the Ganges
BC1000~ America Birth of Andean civilization
BC960 Israel King Solomon takes the throne
BC814 Tunisia Building the city-state of Carthage
BC800 Greece Athens city-state construction
BC800 Greece Homer's Iliad and Odyssey
BC776 Greece Ancient Olympics
BC770~ China Spring and Autumn period
BC753 Italy Founding of Rome (Legend)
BC722 China Beginning of the description of Shunju
BC700 Greece Hesiod's "Work and Day"
BC668 Iraq Ashurbanipal ascends to the throne
BC667 Turkey City of Byzantium construction
BC651 China Duke Huan of Qi becomes the ruler
BC637 China Duke Xiang of Song is defeated by Chu
BC632 China Duke Wen of Jin becomes the hegemon
BC625~ Iraq Neo-Babylonian Empire
BC624 China Duke Mu of Qin becomes the ruler
BC621 Greece Drakon's Legislation
BC612 Iraq Battle of Nineveh
BC605 Iraq Reign of Nebuchadnezzar II
BC597 China The King of Chu of Chu becomes the hegemon
BC594 Greece Solon's reforms
BC586 Iraq Babylonian Captivity
BC586 Israel Establishment of Judaism
BC585 Greece Thales predicts an eclipse
BC561 Greece Beginning of tyranny
BC552 China Birth of Confucius
BC559 Iran Cyrus the Great ascends to the throne
BC550~ Iran Achaemenid Empire period
Persians believe in Zoroastrianism
BC549 India Birth of Mahavira, founder of Jainism
BC525 Iran Cambyses II unites the Orient
BC522 Iran Darius the Great ascends the throne
BC509 Italy Roman Republic
BC508 Greece Political Reform of Ostracism
BC500 India Shakyamuni founded Buddhism
BC500 Nomads Scythian heyday
BC500 India Kosala merges with Magadha
BC500 India Establishment of the Upanishads
BC499~ Greece, Iran Greco-Persian Wars begins
BC494 Italy Tribunal installed in Rome
BC490 Greece, Iran Battle of Marathon
BC480 Greece, Iran Leonidas I died at the Battle of Thermopylae
BC480 Greece, Iran Themistocles in action at the Battle of Salamis
BC479 Greece, Iran Battle of Plataea
BC478 Greece, IranFormation of the Delos Alliance
BC473 China Husari is defeated by the imperial rule and Wu is ruined
BC470 China Birth of Sumiko
BC450 Italy Establishment of the Twelve Tables
BC444 Greece The Age of Pericles (Democracy at its peak in Athens)
BC438 Greece Parthenon completed
BC431 Greece Peloponnesian War begins
BC429 Greece Start of mob politics
BC411 Greece Aristophanes' "Women's Peace" performance
BC400 VietnamBirth of Dongsung Culture
BC403 China Sengoku period begins
Sengoku Nanao Appears
BC400 China The activity of Moroko Hyakuke is the most active
BC399 Greece Death of Socrates
BC387 Greece Plato opens the Academy
BC372 China Birth of Mencius
BC343 Italy サムニウム戦争開始
BC338 Greece フィリッポス2世がカイロネイアの戦いで勝利
BC337 Greece コリントス同盟結成
BC334 Greece アレクサンドロス3世が東方遠征を開始
グラニコス川の戦い
BC333 Turkey イッソスの戦い
BC332 Egypt アレクサンドリアの建設
BC323 Greece ディアドコイ戦争開始
BC317 India マウリヤ朝成立
BC313 China 荀子誕生
BC312 Italy アッピア街道の建設開始
BC312 Syria セレウコス朝が成立
BC304 Egypt プトレマイオス朝が成立
BC300~ Japan 弥生時代
BC287 Italy ホルテンシウス法の制定
BC280~ Italy ピュロス戦争開始
BC276 Greece アンティゴノス朝建国
BC268 India マウリヤ朝アショーカ王の即位
BC264~ Italyポエニ戦争開始
BC255 Central Asia バクトリアの成立
BC247 China 秦の始皇帝が即位
BC247 Iran アルサケス朝パルティア誕生
BC230 India サータヴァーハナ朝の建国
BC221 China 秦の始皇帝が中国を統一
BC216 Italy カンナエの戦いでハンニバルが勝利
BC215~ Italy マケドニア戦争開始
BC215 China 始皇帝が蒙恬を匈奴に派遣
BC214 China 万里の長城の建設
BC213 China 秦の始皇帝が焚書・坑儒を行う
BC212 Italy ローマ軍がシラクサ攻撃(アルキメデスが戦死)
BC209 Mongolia 匈奴の冒頓単于が即位
BC206 China 劉邦と項羽の楚漢戦争開始
BC203 China 南越国の自立
BC202 China 垓下の戦い
劉邦(高祖)が前漢を建立
郡国制を採用
BC202 アフリカ ザマの戦いでスキピオ指揮のローマ軍が勝利
BC200 中央アジア バクトリアが北西インドに侵入
BC196 エジプト ロゼッタ・ストーンが作成される
→神聖文字(ヒエログリフ)
BC195 韓国 衛満が衛氏朝鮮を建国
BC155 インド メナンドロス1世が即位
BC154 China 呉楚七国の乱
BC142 イスラエル ハスモン朝の自立
BC141 China 前漢の武帝が即位
BC139 China 前漢の張騫が大月氏に派遣される(バクトリア滅亡説)
BC136 China 五経博士を設置
BC133~ イタリア グラックス兄弟による改革開始(内乱の一世紀)
BC127 China 将軍衛青により匈奴討伐が開始
BC119 China 将軍霍去病が匈奴を討つ
張騫を烏孫に派遣
BC118 China 五銖銭を発行
BC115 China 均輸法の発布
BC110 China 平準法の実施
BC108 China 楽浪郡など朝鮮4郡を設置
BC107 イタリア マリウスの軍制改革
BC104 China 大宛(フェルガナ)への遠征開始
BC91 China 司馬遷が『史記』を完成させる
BC90 イタリア 同盟市戦争
BC82 イタリア スッラが独裁官となる
BC73~ ヨーロッパ トラキア出身の剣奴スパルタクスによる大奴隷反乱
(スパルタクスの反乱)
BC63 イタリア キケロが執政官に就任
BC60 China 匈奴の内紛(東西分裂)
BC60~ イタリア ポンペイウス・カエサル・クラッススによる第1回三頭政治
BC59 China 前漢が西域都護を設置

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